WASHINGTON — Scientists announced Thursday that they have succeeded in detecting gravitational waves from the violent merging of two black holes in deep space. The detection was hailed as a triumph for a controversial, exquisitely crafted, billion-dollar physics experiment and as confirmation of a key prediction of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity.
It will also inaugurate a new era of astronomy in which gravitational waves are tools for studying the most mysterious and exotic objects in the universe, scientists declared at a euphoric news briefing at the National Press Club.
“Ladies and gentlemen, we have detected gravitational waves. We did it!” said David Reitze, executive director of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), drawing applause from an audience that included many of the luminaries of the physics world. The briefing was watched around the globe by physicists who have long waited for such a detection.
Some of the scientists gathered for the announcement had spent decades conceiving and constructing LIGO.
“For me, this was really my dream. It’s the golden signal for me,” said Alessandra Buonanno, of Germany’s Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, who started working on theoretical models of gravitational waves in 2000 and flew to Washington for the announcement.
The observatory, described as “the most precise measuring device ever built,” is actually two facilities in Livingston, La., and Hanford, Wash. They were built and operated with funding from the National Science Foundation, which has spent $1.1 billion on LIGO over the course of several decades.
The project is led by scientists from the California Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and is supported by an international consortium of scientists and institutions. Gabriela Gonzalez, a physics professor at Louisiana State University who is the spokesperson for LIGO, said during Thursday’s news conference that the work relied on the efforts of “a worldwide village.” The scientific paper published Thursday names 1,004 individual authors.
“Einstein would be beaming, wouldn’t he?” said National Science Foundation director France Cordova.
LIGO survived years of management and funding turmoil, and then finally began operations in 2002. Throughout the first observational run, lasting until 2010, the universe declined to cooperate. LIGO detected nothing.
Then came a major upgrade of the detectors. LIGO became more sensitive. On Sept. 14, in the predawn darkness, LIGO heard something — a clear, compelling signal of two black holes coalescing, the observatory scientists said.
The pattern of the resulting gravitational waves matched what scientists expected based on Einstein’s relativity equations. The physicists knew, from supercomputer calculations and theoretical models, what gravitational waves from merging black holes ought to look like — with a rising frequency, culminating in a chirp, followed by a “ring down” as the waves settle.
Gonzalez revealed images of the waves picked up by the two detectors and then played an audio version of the signal.
“Did you hear the chirp? There’s a rumbling noise, and then there’s a chirp,” she told the Press Club audience. “That’s the chirp we’ve been looking for.”
This cosmic chirp was picked up by both detectors. It was such a strong signal that everyone knew it was either a real detection of a black hole merger, or “somebody had injected a signal into the interferometers and not properly flagged it into the data set. It turned out that fortunately that wasn’t the case,” as Reitze put it.
In fact, the signal was only just quiet enough to have evaded detection before LIGO’s recent upgrade.
Reitze said the team, knowing the checkered history of gravitational wave detections that were later discredited, took special care to have the results verified and peer-reviewed before the announcement. The scientists even looked for the possible handiwork of a computer hacker, Reitze said. All reviews held up.
“This was truly a scientific moonshot,” Reitze said. “I really believe that. And we did it. We landed on the moon.”
The LIGO success has been a poorly kept secret in the physics world, but the scientists kept their historic paper detailing the exact results secret until Thursday morning.
“I didn’t tell my wife until a few days ago,” LIGO co-founder Kip Thorne, a theoretical physicist at Caltech, said amid a scrum of reporters after the announcement. He said he’d been involved with efforts to register gravitational waves since the 1960s. “What I feel is just profound satisfaction.”
There is no obvious, immediate consequence of this physics experiment, but the scientists say this opens a new window on the universe. Until now, astronomy has been almost exclusively a visual enterprise: Scientists have relied on light, visible and otherwise, to observe the cosmos.
But now gravitational waves can be used as well. They could potentially take a census of black-hole mergers, spot the collisions of ultra-dense neutron stars, probe the inner dynamics of exploding stars and discover theoretical “cosmic strings” left over from the big bang.
Gravitational waves are the ripples in the pond of space-time. The gravity of large objects warps space and time, or “space-time” as physicists call it, the way a bowling ball changes the shape of a trampoline as it rolls around on it. Smaller objects will move differently as a result — like marbles spiraling toward a bowling-ball-sized dent in a trampoline instead of sitting on a flat surface.
These waves will be particularly useful for studying black holes (the existence of which was first implied by Einstein’s theory) and other dark objects, because they’ll give scientists a bright beacon to search for, even when objects don’t emit actual light. Mapping the abundance of black holes and frequency of their mergers could get a lot easier.
Since they pass through matter without interacting with it, gravitational waves would come to Earth carrying undistorted information about their origin. They could also improve methods for estimating the distances to other galaxies.
LIGO scientists said they are analyzing additional data from the observational run lasting from September to early January, and that they may find other signs of black-hole mergers. One candidate for such an event, picked up in October, is still being analyzed, they said.
“The geometry of space-time gives a burp at the end of [the merger],” said Rainer Weiss, an MIT professor of physics emeritus who has labored on LIGO since the 1970s.
No one had ever seen direct evidence of “binary” black holes — two black holes paired together and then merging. The Sept. 14 signal came from about 1.3 billion light-years away, though that’s a very approximate estimate.
That places the black-hole merger in very deep space; the signal that arrived in September came from an event that happened before there were any multicellular organisms on Earth.
and Rachel Feltman,
The Washington Post